In April 2001 the International Accounting Standards Board (Board) adopted IAS 14 Segment Reporting, which had originally been issued by the International Accounting Standards Committee in August 1997. IAS 14 Segment Reporting replaced IAS 14 Reporting Financial Information by Segment, issued in August 1981.
In November 2006 the Board issued IFRS 8 Operating Segments to replace IAS 14. IAS 1 Presentation of Financial Statements (as revised in 2007) amended the terminology used throughout the Standards, including IFRS 8.
Other Standards have made minor consequential amendments to IFRS 8. They include IAS 19 Employee Benefits (issued June 2011), Annual Improvements to IFRSs 2010–2012 Cycle (issued December 2013) and Amendments to References to the Conceptual Framework in IFRS Standards (issued March 2018).

International Financial Reporting Standard 8 Operating Segments
Core principle
An entity shall disclose information to enable users of its financial statements to evaluate the nature and financial effects of the business activities in which it engages and the economic environments in which it operates.
Scope
This IFRS shall apply to:
(a) the separate or individual financial statements of an entity:
(i) whose debt or equity instruments are traded in a public market (a domestic or foreign stock exchange or an over‑the‑counter market, including local and regional markets), or
(ii) that files, or is in the process of filing, its financial statements with a securities commission or other regulatory organisation for the purpose of issuing any class of instruments in a public market; and
(b) the consolidated financial statements of a group with a parent:
(i) whose debt or equity instruments are traded in a public market (a domestic or foreign stock exchange or an over‑the‑counter market, including local and regional markets), or
(ii) that files, or is in the process of filing, the consolidated financial statements with a securities commission or other regulatory organisation for the purpose of issuing any class of instruments in a public market.
If an entity that is not required to apply this IFRS chooses to disclose information about segments that does not comply with this IFRS, it shall not describe the information as segment information.
If a financial report contains both the consolidated financial statements of a parent that is within the scope of this IFRS as well as the parent’s separate financial statements, segment information is required only in the consolidated financial statements.
Operating segments
An operating segment is a component of an entity:
(a) that engages in business activities from which it may earn revenues and incur expenses (including revenues and expenses relating to transactions with other components of the same entity),

(b) whose operating results are regularly reviewed by the entity’s chief operating decision maker to make decisions about resources to be allocated to the segment and assess its performance, and
(c) for which discrete financial information is available.
An operating segment may engage in business activities for which it has yet to earn revenues, for example, start‑up operations may be operating segments before earning revenues.
Not every part of an entity is necessarily an operating segment or part of an operating segment. For example, a corporate headquarters or some functional departments may not earn revenues or may earn revenues that are only incidental to the activities of the entity and would not be operating segments. For the purposes of this IFRS, an entity’s post‑employment benefit plans are not operating segments.
The term ‘chief operating decision maker’ identifies a function, not necessarily a manager with a specific title. That function is to allocate resources to and assess the performance of the operating segments of an entity. Often the chief operating decision maker of an entity is its chief executive officer or chief operating officer but, for example, it may be a group of executive directors or others.
For many entities, the three characteristics of operating segments described in paragraph 5 clearly identify its operating segments. However, an entity may produce reports in which its business activities are presented in a variety of ways. If the chief operating decision maker uses more than one set of segment information, other factors may identify a single set of components as constituting an entity’s operating segments, including the nature of the business activities of each component, the existence of managers responsible for them, and information presented to the board of directors.
Generally, an operating segment has a segment manager who is directly accountable to and maintains regular contact with the chief operating decision maker to discuss operating activities, financial results, forecasts, or plans for the segment. The term ‘segment manager’ identifies a function, not necessarily a manager with a specific title. The chief operating decision maker also may be the segment manager for some operating segments. A single manager may be the segment manager for more than one operating segment. If the characteristics in paragraph 5 apply to more than one set of components of an organisation but there is only one set for which segment managers are held responsible, that set of components constitutes the operating segments.
The characteristics in paragraph 5 may apply to two or more overlapping sets of components for which managers are held responsible. That structure is sometimes referred to as a matrix form of organisation. For example, in some entities, some managers are responsible for different product and service lines worldwide, whereas other managers are responsible for specific geographical areas. The chief operating decision maker regularly reviews the operating results of both sets of components, and financial information is available for both. In that situation, the entity shall determine which set of components constitutes the operating segments by reference to the core principle.

Reportable segments
An entity shall report separately information about each operating segment that:
(a) has been identified in accordance with paragraphs 5–10 or results from aggregating two or more of those segments in accordance with paragraph 12, and
(b) exceeds the quantitative thresholds in paragraph 13.
Paragraphs 14–19 specify other situations in which separate information about an operating segment shall be reported.
Aggregation criteria Operating segments often exhibit similar long‑term financial performance if they have similar economic characteristics. For example, similar long‑term average gross margins for two operating segments would be expected if their economic characteristics were similar. Two or more operating segments may be aggregated into a single operating segment if aggregation is consistent with the core principle of this IFRS, the segments have similar economic characteristics, and the segments are similar in each of the following respects:
(a) the nature of the products and services;
(b) the nature of the production processes;
(c) the type or class of customer for their products and services;
(d) the methods used to distribute their products or provide their services; and
(e) if applicable, the nature of the regulatory environment, for example, banking, insurance or public utilities.
Quantitative thresholds An entity shall report separately information about an operating segment that meets any of the following quantitative thresholds:
(a) Its reported revenue, including both sales to external customers and intersegment sales or transfers, is 10 per cent or more of the combined revenue, internal and external, of all operating segments.
(b) The absolute amount of its reported profit or loss is 10 per cent or more of the greater, in absolute amount, of (i) the combined reported profit of all operating segments that did not report a loss and (ii) the combined reported loss of all operating segments that reported a loss.
(c) Its assets are 10 per cent or more of the combined assets of all operating segments.

Operating segments that do not meet any of the quantitative thresholds may be considered reportable, and separately disclosed, if management believes that information about the segment would be useful to users of the financial statements.
An entity may combine information about operating segments that do not meet the quantitative thresholds with information about other operating segments that do not meet the quantitative thresholds to produce a reportable segment only if the operating segments have similar economic characteristics and share a majority of the aggregation criteria listed in paragraph 12.
If the total external revenue reported by operating segments constitutes less than 75 per cent of the entity’s revenue, additional operating segments shall be identified as reportable segments (even if they do not meet the criteria in paragraph 13) until at least 75 per cent of the entity’s revenue is included in reportable segments.
Information about other business activities and operating segments that are not reportable shall be combined and disclosed in an ‘all other segments’ category separately from other reconciling items in the reconciliations required by paragraph 28. The sources of the revenue included in the ‘all other segments’ category shall be described.
If management judges that an operating segment identified as a reportable segment in the immediately preceding period is of continuing significance, information about that segment shall continue to be reported separately in the current period even if it no longer meets the criteria for reportability in paragraph 13.
If an operating segment is identified as a reportable segment in the current period in accordance with the quantitative thresholds, segment data for a prior period presented for comparative purposes shall be restated to reflect the newly reportable segment as a separate segment, even if that segment did not satisfy the criteria for reportability in paragraph 13 in the prior period, unless the necessary information is not available and the cost to develop it would be excessive.
There may be a practical limit to the number of reportable segments that an entity separately discloses beyond which segment information may become too detailed. Although no precise limit has been determined, as the number of segments that are reportable in accordance with paragraphs 13–18 increases above ten, the entity should consider whether a practical limit has been reached.
Disclosure
An entity shall disclose information to enable users of its financial statements to evaluate the nature and financial effects of the business activities in which it engages and the economic environments in which it operates.