AGREEMENT

BETWEEN

THE GOVERNMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF TURKEY

AND

THE GOVERNMENT OF THE FEDERATIVE REPUBLIC OF BRAZIL
FOR THE AVOIDANCE OF DOUBLE TAXATION
AND THE PREVENTION OF FISCAL EVASION
WITH RESPECT TO TAXES ON INCOME

THE GOVERNMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF TURKEY

AND

THE GOVERNMENT OF THE FEDERATIVE REPUBLIC OF BRAZIL

desiring to conclude an Agreement for the avoidance of double taxation and the prevention of fiscal evasion with respect to taxes on income,

have agreed as follows:

Article 1

PERSONS COVERED

This Agreement shall apply to persons who are residents of one or both of the Contracting States.

Article 2

TAXES COVERED

  1. 1.The existing taxes to which the Agreement shall apply are in particular:
    1. a)in Brazil:

the federal income tax;

(hereinafter referred to as “Brazilian tax”); and

  1. b)in Turkey:
  2. (i)the income tax; and
  3. (ii)the corporation tax;

(hereinafter referred to as “Turkish tax”).

  1. 2.The Agreement shall apply also to any identical or substantially similar taxes which are imposed after the date of signature of the Agreement in addition to, or in place of, the existing taxes. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall notify each other of any significant changes which have been made in their respective taxation laws.

Article 3

GENERAL DEFINITIONS

1. For the purposes of this Agreement, unless the context otherwise requires:

  1. a)the term “Brazil” means the Federative Republic of Brazil;
  2. b)the term “Turkey” means the Turkish territory including territorial sea and airspace above it, as well as the maritime areas over which it has jurisdiction or sovereign rights for the purposes of exploration, exploitation and conservation of natural resources, pursuant the international law;
    1. c)the terms “a Contracting State” and “the other Contracting State” mean Brazil or Turkey, as the context requires;
    2. d)the term “tax” means any tax covered by Article 2 of this Agreement;
    3. e)the term “person” includes an individual, a company and any other body of persons;
    4. f)the term “company” means any body corporate or any entity that is treated as a body corporate for tax purposes;
    5. g)the terms “enterprise of a Contracting State” and “enterprise of the other Contracting State” mean respectively an enterprise carried on by a resident of a Contracting State and an enterprise carried on by a resident of the other Contracting State;
    6. h)the term “national” means:

(1) any individual possessing the nationality of a Contracting State;

(ii) any legal person, partnership or association deriving its status as such from the Jaws in force in a Contracting State;

  1. i)the term “international traffic” means any transport by a ship or aircraft operated by an enterprise of a Contracting State, except when the ship or aircraft is operated solely between places in the other Contracting State;
  2. j)the term “competent authority” means:
    1. (i)in the case of Brazil, the Minister of Finance, the Secretary of Federal Revenue or their authorised representatives;
    2. (ii)in the case of Turkey, the Minister of Finance or his authorised representative.
    3. 2.As regards the application of the Agreement at any time by a Contracting State, any term not defined therein shall, unless the context otherwise requires, have the meaning that it has at that time under the law of that State for the purposes of the taxes to which the Agreement applies, any meaning under the applicable tax laws of that State prevailing over a meaning given to the term under other laws of that State.

Article 4
RESIDENT

  1. 1.For the purposes of this Agreement, the term “resident of a Contracting State” means any person who, under the laws of that State, is liable to tax therein by reason


of his domicile, residence, legal head office (place of incorporation), place of management or any other criterion of a similar nature, and also includes that State and any political subdivision or local authority thereof.

  1. 2.Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph 1 an individual is a resident of both Contracting States, then his status shall be determined as follows:
    1. a)he shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State in which he has a permanent home available to him; if he has a permanent home available to him in both States, he shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State with which his personal and economic relations are closer (centre of vital interests);
    2. b)if the State in which he has his centre of vital interests cannot be determined, or if he has not a permanent home available to him in either State, he shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State in which he has an habitual abode;
    3. c)if he has an habitual abode in both States or in neither of them, he shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State of which he is a national;
    4. d)if he is a national of both States or of neither of them, the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall settle the question by mutual agreement.
    5. 3.Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph 1 a person other than an individual is a resident of both Contracting States, the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall endeavour to resolve the case. If a mutual agreement cannot be reached, such a person shall not be entitled to any tax benefits or exemptions provided for in this Agreement,

Article 5

PERMANENT ESTABLISHMENT

  1. 1.For the purposes of this Agreement, the term “permanent establishment” means a fixed place of business through which the business of an enterprise is wholly or partly carried on.
  2. 2.The term “permanent establishment” includes especially:
    1. a)a place of management;
    2. b)a branch;
    3. c)an office;
    4. d)a factory;
    5. e)a workshop, and
    6. f)a mine, an oil or gas welt, a quarry or any other place of extraction of natural resources.
    7. 3.A building site, a construction, assembly or installation project constitutes a permanent establishment only if such site or project lasts for a period of more than 12 months.
    8. 4.Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this Article, the term ;ipermanent establishment” shall be deemed not to include:
      1. a)the use of facilities solely for the purpose of storage, display or delivery of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise;
      2. b)the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise solely for the purpose of storage, display or delivery;
      3. c)the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise solely for the purpose of processing by another enterprise;
      4. d)the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of purchasing goods or merchandise or of collecting information, for the enterprise;
      5. e)the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of carrying on, for the enterprise, any other activity of a preparatory or auxiliary character;
      6. f)the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for any combination of activities mentioned in sub-paragraphs a) to e), provided that the overall activity of the fixed place of business resulting from this combination is of a preparatory or auxiliary character.
      7. 5.Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2, where a person – other than an agent of an independent status to whom paragraph 6 applies – is acting on behalf of an enterprise and has, and habitually exercises, in a Contracting State an authority to conclude contracts in the name of the enterprise, that enterprise shall be deemed to have a permanent establishment in that State in respect of any activities which that person undertakes for the enterprise, unless the activities of such person are limited to those mentioned in paragraph 4 which, if exercised through a fixed place of business, would not make this fixed place of business a permanent establishment under the provisions of that paragraph.


6,    An enterprise of a Contracting State shall not be deemed to have a permanent establishment in the other Contracting State merely because it carries on business in that other State through a broker, general commission agent or any other agent of an independent status, provided that such persons are acting in the ordinary course of their business,

  1. 7.The fact that a company which is a resident of a Contracting State controls or is controlled by a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State, or which carries on business in that other State (whether through a permanent establishment or otherwise), shall not of itself constitute either company a permanent establishment of the other.

Article 6

INCOME FROM IMMOVABLE PROPERTY

  1. 1.Income derived by a resident of a Contracting State from immovable property (including income from agriculture or forestry) situated in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.
  2. 2.The term “immovable property” shall have the meaning which it has under the law of the Contracting State in which the property in question is situated. The term shall in any case include property accessory to immovable property, livestock and equipment used in agriculture (including the breeding and cultivation of fish) and forestry, rights to which the provisions of general law respecting landed property apply, usufruct of immovable property and rights to variable or fixed payments as consideration for the working of, or the right to work, mineral deposits, sources and other natural resources: ships and aircraft shall not be regarded as immovable property.
  3. 3.The provisions of paragraph 1 shall apply to income derived from the direct use, letting, or use in any other form of immovable property.
  4. 4.The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 3 shall also apply to the income from immovable property of an enterprise and to income from immovable property used for the performance of independent personal services.

Article 7

BUSINESS PROFITS

  1. 1.Tlie profits of an enterprise of a Contracting State shall be taxable only in that State unless the enterprise carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein. If the enterprise carries on business as aforesaid, the profits of the enterprise may be taxed in the other State but only so much of them as is attributable to that permanent establishment.
  2. 2.Subject to the provisions of paragraph 3, where an enterprise of a Contracting State carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein, there shall in each Contracting State be attributed to that permanent establishment the profits which it might be expected to make if it were a distinct and separate enterprise engaged in the same or similar activities under the same or similar conditions and dealing wholly independently with the enterprise of which it is a permanent establishment.
  3. 3.In determining the profits of a permanent establishment, there shall be allowed as deductions expenses which are incurred for the purposes of the permanent establishment, including executive and general administrative expenses so incurred, whether in the State in which the permanent establishment is situated or elsewhere.
  4. 4.No profits shall be attributed to a permanent establishment by reason of the mere purchase by that permanent establishment of goods or merchandise for the enterprise.
  5. 5.Where profits include items of income which are dealt with separately in other Articles of this Agreement, then the provisions of those Articles shall not be affected by the provisions of this Article.

Article 8

SHIPPING AND AIR TRANSPORT

  1. 1.Profits derived by an enterprise of a Contracting State from the operation of ships or aircraft in international traffic shall be taxable only in that State.
  2. 2.The provisions of paragraph 1 shall also apply to profits from the participation in a pool a joint business or an international operating agency.


Article 9

ASSOCIATED ENTERPRISES

Where

  1. a)an enterprise of a Contracting State participates directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of an enterprise of the other Contracting State, or
  2. b)the same persons participate directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of an enterprise of a Contracting State and an enterprise of the other Contracting State,

and in either case conditions are made or imposed between the two enterprises in their commercial or financial relations which differ from those which would be made between independent enterprises, then any profits which would, but for those conditions, have accrued to one of the enterprises, but, by reason of those conditions, have not so accrued, may be included in the profits of that enterprise and taxed accordingly.

Article 10
DIVIDENDS

  1. 1.Dividends paid by a company which is a resident of a Contracting State to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.
  2. 2.However, such dividends may also be taxed in the Contracting State of which the company paying the dividends is a resident and according to the laws of that State, but if the beneficial owner of the dividends is a resident of the other Contracting State, the tax so charged shall not exceed:
    1. a)10 per cent of the gross amount of the dividends if the beneficial owner is a company (other than a partnership) which holds directly at least 25 per cent of the capital of the company paying the dividends;
    2. b)15 p%r cent of the gross amount of the dividends in all othen-cases.

This paragraph shall not affect the taxation of the company in respect of the profits out of which the di vidends are paid.


  1. 3.The term “dividends” as used in this Article means income from shares, “jouissance” shares or “jouissance” rights, mining shares, founders’ shares or other rights, not being debt-claims, participating in profits, as well as income derived from an investment fund and investment trust and income from other corporate rights which is subjected to the same taxation treatment as income from shares by the laws of the State of which the company making the distribution is a resident.
  2. 4.Profits of a company which is a resident of a Contracting State carrying on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein may, after having been taxed under Article 7 with respect to corporate income tax, be taxed on the remaining amount in the Contracting State in which the permanent establishment is situated and in accordance with paragraph 2 (a) of this Article.
  3. 5.The provisions of paragraphs l and 2 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the dividends, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State of which the company paying the dividends is a resident, through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the holding in respect of which the dividends are paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.
  4. 6.Subject to the provisions of paragraph 4, where a company which is a resident of a Contracting State derives profits or income from the other Contracting State, that other State may not impose any tax on the dividends paid by the company, except insofar as such dividends are paid to a resident of that other State or insofar as the holding in respect of which the dividends are paid is effectively connected with a permanent establishment or a fixed base situated in that other State, nor subject the company’s undistributed profits to a tax on the company’s undistributed profits, even if the dividends paid or the undistributed profits consist wholly or partly of profits or income arising in such other State.

Article 11 INTEREST

  1. 1.Interest arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State may he taxed in that other State.
  2. 2.However, such interest may also be taxed in the Contracting State in which it arises and according to the laws of that State, but if the beneficial owner of the interest is a resident of the other Contracting State, the tax so charged shall not exceed 15 per cent of the gross amount of the interest.
  3. 3.Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 2, interest arising in:
    1. a)Turkey and paid to the Government of Brazil, to the Central Bank of Brazil or to the National Bank for Economic and Social Development (BNDES) shall be exempt from Turkish tax;
    2. b)Brazil and paid to the Government of Turkey, to the Central Bank of Turkey (Tiirkiye Cumhuriyet Merkez Bankasi) or to the Turkish Export/Import Bank (Eximbank) shall be exempt from Brazilian tax.
    3. 4.The term “interest” as used in this Article means income from debt-claims of every kind, whether or not secured by mortgage and whether or not carrying a right to participate in the debtor’s profits, and in particular, income from government securities and income from bonds or debentures, including premiums and prizes attaching to such securities, bonds or debentures, as well as other income assimilated to income from money lent by the tax law of the Contracting State in which the income arises.
    4. 5.The provisions of paragraphs 1, 2 and 3 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the interest, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State in which the interest arises through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the debt-claim in respect of which the interest is paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.
    5. 6.Interest shall be deemed to arise in a Contracting State when the payer is a resident of that State. Where, however, the person paying the interest, whether he is a resident of a Contracting State or not, has in a Contracting State a permanent establishment or a fixed base in connection with which the indebtedness on which the interest is paid was incurred, and such interest is borne by such permanent establishment or fixed base, then such interest shall be deemed to arise in the State in which the permanent establishment or fixed base is situated.
    6. 7.Where, by reason of a special relationship between the payer and the beneficial owner or between both of them and some other person, the amount of the interest, having regard to the debt-claim for which it is paid, exceeds the amount which



would have been agreed upon by the payer and the beneficial owner in the absence of such relationship, the provisions of this Article shall apply only to the last- mentioned amount. In such case, the excess part of thfe payments shall remain taxable according to the laws of each Contracting State, due regard being had to the other provisions of this Agreement.

Article 12
ROYALTIES

  1. 1.Royalties arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.
  2. 2.However, such royalties may also be taxed in the Contracting State in which they arise and according to the laws of that State, but if the beneficial owner of the royalties is a resident of the other Contracting State, the tax so charged shall not exceed:
    1. a)15 per cent of the gross amount of the royalties arising from the use of, or the right to use, trade marks;
    2. b)10 per cent of the gross amount of the royalties in all other cases.
    3. 3.The term “royalties” as used in this Article means payments of any kind received as a consideration for the use of, or the right to use, any copyright of literary, artistic or scientific work including cinematograph films and recordings for television or radio broadcasting, any patent, trade mark, design or model, plan, secret formula or process, or any industrial, commercial or scientific equipment, or for information concerning industrial, commercial or scientific experience.
    4. 4.The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the royalties, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State in which the royalties arise, through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the right or property in respect of which the royalties are paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.
    5. 5.Royalties shall be deemed to arise in a Contracting State when the payer is a resident of that State. Where, however, the person paying the royalties, whether he is a resident of a Contracting State or not, has in a Contracting State a permanent


establishment or a fixed base in connection with which the liability to pay the royalties was incurred, and such royalties are borne by such permanent establishment or fixed base, then such royalties shall be deemed to arise in the State in which the permanent establishment or fixed base is situated.

  1. 6.Where, by reason of a special relationship between the payer and the beneficial owner or between both of them and some other person, the amount of the royalties, having regard to the use, right or information for which they are paid, exceeds the amount which would have been agreed upon by the payer and the beneficial owner in the absence of such relationship, the provisions of this Article shall apply only to the last-mentioned amount. In such case, the excess part of the payments shall remain taxable according to the laws of each Contracting State, due regard being had to the other provisions of this Agreement.

Article 13
CAPITAL GAINS

  1. 1.Gains derived by a resident of a Contracting State from the alienation of immovable property referred to in Article 6 and situated in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.
  2. 2.Gains from the alienation of movable property forming part of the business property of a permanent establishment which an enterprise of a Contracting State has in the other Contracting State or of movable property pertaining to a fixed base available to a resident of a Contracting State in the other Contracting State for the purpose of performing independent personal services, including such gains from the alienation of such a permanent establishment (alone or with the whole enterprise) or of such fixed base, may be taxed in that other State.
  3. 3.Gains derived by an enterprise of a Contracting State from the alienation of ships or aircraft operated in international traffic or of movable property pertaining to the operation of such ships or aircraft shall be taxable only in that State.
  4. 4.Gains from the alienation of any property other than that referred to in paragraphs 1, 2 and 3 of this Article and arising in the other Contracting State may also be taxed in that other State.

Article 14

INDEPENDENT PERSONAL SERVICES

  1. 1.Income derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of professional services or other activities of an independent character shall be taxable only in that State except in the following circumstances, when such income may also be taxed in the other Contracting State:
    1. a)if he has a fixed base regularly available to him in the other Contracting State for the purpose of performing his activities; in that case, only so much of the income as is attributable to that fixed base may be taxed in that other State; or
    2. b)if his stay in the other State is for a period or periods exceeding in the aggregate 183 days in any twelve month period commencing or ending in the fiscal year concerned; in that case, only so much of the income as is derived from his activities performed in that other State may be taxed in that other State.
    3. 2.The term “professional services” includes especially independent scientific, literary, artistic, educational or teaching activities as well as the independent activities of physicians, lawyers, engineers, architects, dentists and accountants.

Article 15

DEPENDENT PERSONAL SERVICES

  1. 1.Subject to the provisions of Articles 16, 18, 19 and 20, salaries, wages and other similar remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of an employment shall be taxable only in that State unless the employment is exercised in the other Contracting State. If the employment is so exercised, such remuneration as is derived therefrom may be taxed in that other State.
  2. 2.Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1, remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of an employment exercised in the other Contracting State shall be taxable only in the first-mentioned State if:
    1. a)the recipient is present in the other State for a period or periods not exceeding in the aggregate I S3 days in any twelve month period commencing or ending in the fiscal year concerned, and
    2. b)the remuneration is paid by, or on behalf of, an employer who is not a resident of the other State, and
    3. c)the remuneration is not borne by a permanent establishment or a fixed base which the employer has in the other State.
    4. 3.Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this Article, remuneration derived in respect of an employment exercised aboard a ship or aircraft operated by an enterprise of a Contracting State in international traffic may be taxed in that State.


Article 16

DIRECTORS* FEES

Directors’ fees and other similar payments derived by a resident of a Contracting State in his capacity as a member of the board of directors or any other similar organ of a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

Article 17

ARTISTES AND SPORTSMEN

  1. 1.Notwithstanding the provisions of Articles 14 and 15, income derived by a resident of a Contracting State as an entertainer, such as a theatre, motion picture, radio or television artiste, or a musician, or as a sportsman, from his personal activities as such exercised in the other Contracting State, may be taxed in that other State.
  2. 2.Where income in respect of personal activities exercised by an entertainer or a sportsman in his capacity as such accrues not to the entertainer or sportsman himself but to^nother person, that income may, notwithstanding th^, provisions of Articles 7, 14 and 15, be taxed in the Contracting State in which the activities of the entertainer or sportsman are exercised.
  3. 3.The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 of this Article shall not apply to income derived from activities performed in a Contracting State by entertainers or sportsmen if the visit to that State is wholly or mainly supported by public funds of the other Contracting State or a political subdivision or a local authority thereof or by a government controlled institution. In such a case the income shall be taxable only in the Contracting State of which the entertainer or sportsman is a resident.

Article 18

PENSIONS AND ANNUITIES

  1. 1.Subject to the provisions of paragraph 2 of Article 19, pensions and other similar remuneration in consideration of past employment, and annuities paid to a resident of a Contracting State shall be taxable only in that State.
  2. 2.Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1 of this Article, pensions and other payments made under a public scheme that is part of the social security system of a Contracting State or a political subdivision or a local authority thereof shall be taxable only in that State if paid to a national of that State.
  3. 3.The term “annuity41 means a stated sum payable to an individual periodically at stated times during his life or during a specified or ascertainable period of time under an obligation to make the payments in return for adequate and foil consideration in money or money’s worth.

Article 19

GOVERNMENT SERVICE

  1. 1.a) Salaries, wages and other similar remuneration, other than a pension, paid by a Contracting State or a political subdivision or a local authority thereof to an individual in respect of services rendered to that State or subdivision or authority shall be taxable only in that State.

b) However, such salaries, wages and other similar remuneration shall be taxable only in the other Contracting State if the services are rendered in that State and the individual is a resident of that State who:


  1. (i)is a national of that State; or
  2. (ii)did not become a resident of that State solely for the purpose of rendering the services.
  3. 2.a) Any pension paid by, or out of funds created by, a Contracting State or a political subdivision or a local authority thereof to an individual in respect of services rendered to that State or subdivision or authority shall be taxable only in that State,

b) However, such pension shall be taxable only in the other Contracting State if the individual is a resident of, and a national of, that State.

  1. 3.The provisions of Articles 15, 16,17 and 18 shall apply to salaries, wages and other similar remuneration, and to pensions, in respect of services rendered in connection with a business carried on by a Contracting State or a political subdivision or a local authority thereof.

Article 20

TEACHERS AND RESEARCHERS

An individual who is or was immediately before visiting a Contracting State a resident of the other Contracting State and who, at the invitation of the Government of the first-mentioned State or of a university, college, school, museum or other cultural institution in that first-mentioned State or under an official programme of cultural exchange, is present in that State for a period not exceeding two consecutive years solely for the purpose of teaching, giving lectures or carrying out research at such institution shall be exempt from tax in that State on his remuneration for such activity, provided that the payment of such remuneration is derived by him from outside that State.

Article 21

STUDENTS, BUSINESS APPRENTICES AND TRAINEES

  1. 1.Payments which a student, business apprentice or trainee who is or was immediately before visiting a Contracting State a resident of the other Contracting State and who is present in the first-mentioned State solely for the purpose of his


education or training receives for the purpose of his maintenance, education or training shall not be taxed in that State, provided that such payments arise from sources outside that State.

  1. 2.Remuneration which a student, business apprentice or trainee who is or was a resident of a Contracting State derives from an employment which he exercises in the other Contracting State for a period or periods not exceeding in the aggregate 183 days in any twelve month period commencing or ending in the fiscal year concerned, in order to obtain practical experience related to his education or training, shall not be taxed in that other State.
  2. 3.In respect of grants, scholarships and remuneration from employment not covered by paragraph 1, a student, business apprentice or trainee mentioned in paragraph 1 shall, in addition, be entitled during such education or training to the same exemptions, reliefs or reductions in respect of taxes available to residents of the State which he is visiting.

Article 22
OTHER INCOME

  1. 1.Items of income of a resident of a Contracting State, wherever arising, not dealt with in the foregoing Articles of this Agreement shall be taxable only in that State.
  2. 2.The provisions of paragraph 1 shall not apply to income, other than income from immovable property as defined in paragraph 2 of Article 6, if the recipient of such income, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the right or property in respect of which the income is paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.
  3. 3.Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2, items of income of a resident of a Contracting State not dealt with in the foregoing Articles of this Agreement and arising in the other Contracting State may also be taxed in that other State.


Article 23

ELIMINATION OF DOUBLE TAXATION

  1. 1.Where a resident of a Contracting State derives income which, in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement, may be taxed in the other Contracting State, the first-mentioned State shall allow, subject to the provisions of its law regarding the elimination of double taxation (which shall not affect the general principle hereof), as a deduction from the tax on the income of that resident, an amount equal to the tax on income paid in that other State.

Such deduction shall not, however, exceed that part of the income tax, as computed before the deduction is given, which is attributable to the income which may be taxed in that other State.

  1. 2.Where in accordance with any provision of this Agreement income derived by a resident of a Contracting State is exempt from tax in that State, such State may nevertheless, in calculating the amount of tax on the remaining income of such resident, take into account the exempted income.

Article 24

NON-DISCRIMINATION

  1. 1.Nationals of a Contracting State shall not be subjected in the other Contracting State to any taxation or any requirement connected therewith, which is other or more burdensome than the taxation and connected requirements to which nationals of that other State in the same circumstances, in particular with respect to residence, are or may be subjected. This provision shall, notwithstanding the provisions of Article I, also apply to persons who arc not residents of one or both of the Contracting States.
  2. 2.Subject to the provisions of paragraph 4 of Article 10, the taxation on a permanent establishment which an enterprise of a Contracting State has in the other Contracting State shall not be less favourably levied in that other State than the taxation levied on enterprises of that other State carrying on the same activities.
  3. 3.Nothing in this Article shall be construed as obliging a Contracting State to grant to residents of the other Contracting State any personal allowances, reliefs and reductions for taxation purposes on account of civil status or family responsibilities which it grants to its own residents.
  4. 4.Except where the provisions of Article 9, paragraph 7 of Article 11, or paragraph 6 of Article 12, apply, interest, royalties and other disbursements paid by an enterprise of a Contracting State to a resident of the other Contracting State shall, for the purpose of determining the taxable profits of such enterprise, be deductible under the same conditions as if they had been paid to a resident of the first- mentioned State.
  5. 5.Enterprises of a Contracting State, the capital of which is wholly or partly owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by one or more residents of the other Contracting State, shall not be subjected in the first-mentioned State to any taxation or any requirement connected therewith which is other or more burdensome than the taxation and connected requirements to which other similar enterprises of the first- mentioned State are or may be subjected.
  6. 6.In this Article, the term “taxation” covers the taxes to which this Agreement applies.

Article 25

MUTUAL AGREEMENT PROCEDURE

  1. 1.Where a person considers that the actions of one or both of the Contracting States result or will result for him iri taxation not in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement, he may, irrespective of the remedies provided by the domestic law of those States, present his case to the competent authority of the Contracting. State of which he is a resident or, if his case comes under paragraph I of Article 24, to that of the Contracting State of which he is a national. The case must be presented within the period provided for in the domestic laws of the Contracting States.
  2. 2.The competent authority shall endeavour, if the objection appears to it to be justified and if it is not itself able to arrive at a satisfactory solution, to resolve the case by mutual agreement with the competent authority of the other Contracting State, with a view to the avoidance of taxation which is not in accordance with the Agreement.
  3. 3.The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall endeavour to resolve by mutual agreement any difficulties or doubts arising as to the interpretation or application of the Agreement.
  4. 4.The competent authorities of the Contracting States may communicate with each other directly for the purpose of reaching an agreement in the sense of the preceding paragraphs.


Article 26

EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION

  1. 1.The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall exchange such information as is foreseeably relevant for carrying out the provisions of this Agreement or to the administration or enforcement of the domestic laws concerning taxes of every kind and description imposed on behalf of the Contracting States, or of their political subdivisions or local authorities, insofar as the taxation thereunder is not contrary to the Agreement. The exchange of information is not restricted by Articles 1 and 2.
  2. 2.Any information received under paragraph 1 by a Contracting State shall be treated as secret in the same manner as information obtained under the domestic laws of that State and shall be disclosed only to persons or authorities (including courts and administrative bodies) concerned with the assessment or collection of, the enforcement or prosecution in respect of, the determination of appeals in relation to the taxes referred to in paragraph 1, or the oversight of the above. Such persons or authorities shall use the information only for such purposes. They may disclose the information in public court proceedings or injudicial decisions.
  3. 3.In no case shall the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 be construed so as to impose on a Contracting State the obligation:
    1. a)to cany out administrative measures at variance with the laws and administrative practice of that or of the other Contracting State;
    2. b)to supply information which is not obtainable under the laws or in the normal course of the administration of that or of the other Contracting State;
    3. c)to supply information which would disclose any trade, business, industrial, commercial or professional secret or trade process, or information, the disclosure of which would be contrary to public policy (ordre public),
    4. 4.If information is requested by a Contracting State in accordance with this Article, the other Contracting State shall use its information gathering measures to obtain the requested information, even though that other State hnay not need such information for its own tax purposes. The obligation contained in the preceding sentence is subject to the limitations of paragraph 3 but in no case shall such limitations be construed to permit a Contracting State to decline to supply information solely because it has no domestic interest in such information.
    5. 5.In no case shall the provisions of paragraph 3 be construed to permit a Contracting State to decline to supply information solely because the information is held by a bank, other financial institution, nominee or person acting in an agency or a fiduciary capacity or because it relates to ownership interests in a person.


Article 27

MEMBERS OF DIPLOMATIC MISSIONS AND CONSULAR POSTS

Nothing in this Agreement shall affect the fiscal privileges of members of diplomatic missions or consular posts under the general rules of international law or under the provisions of special agreements.

Article 28

LIMITATION OF BENEFITS

The competent authorities of the Contracting States may deny the benefits of this Agreement to any person, or with respect to any transaction, if in their opinion the receipt of those benefits, under the circumstances, would constitute an abuse of the Agreement according to its purposes.

Article 29

ENTRY INTO FORCE [1] [2]


b) in the case of Brazil;

  1. i)with regard to taxes withheld at source, in respect of amounts paid, remitted or credited on or after the first day of January next following the date upon which this Agreement enters into force; and
  2. ii)with regard to other taxes covered by this Agreement, in respect of income arising in the taxable years beginning on or after the first day of January next following the date upon which this Agreement enters into force.

Article 30
TERMINATION

This Agreement shall remain in force until terminated by a Contracting State. Either Contracting State may terminate the Agreement, through diplomatic channels, by giving written notice of termination at least six months before the end of any calendar year following after the period of five years from the date on which the Agreement enters into force. In such event, the Agreement shall cease to have effect:

  1. a)in the case of Turkey, for taxes with respect to every taxable period beginning on or after the first day of January of the year following that in which the notice is given;
  2. b)in the case of Brazil:
    1. i)with regard to taxes withheld at source, in respect of amounts paid, remitted or credited after the end of the calendar year in which such notice is given; and
    2. ii)with regard to other taxes covered by this Agreement, in respect of income arising in the taxable years beginning after the end of the calendar year in which such notice is given.

IN WITNESS whereof the undersigned, being duly authorised thereto, have signed this Agreement.

DONE in duplicate at Foz do Iguayu, this 161” day of December 2010, in the Turkish, Portuguese and English languages, all texts being equally authentic. In case of any divergence of interpretation between the Turkish and Portuguese texts, the English text shall prevail.

 

PROTOCOL

At the signing of the Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Turkey and the Government of the Federative Republic of Brazil for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with respect to Taxes on Income, the undersigned, duly authorized thereto, have agreed upon the following provisions which constitute an integral part of the Agreement.

  1. 1.With reference to Article 2

It is understood that in the case of Brazil the social contribution on the net profits (Contribui^&o Social sobre o Lucro Liquido, CSLL) created by Law 7689 of 15 December 1988 is included in the taxes referred to in Article 2, paragraph 1, sub­paragraph (a).

  1. 2.With reference to Article 11

It is understood that the tax rate limitation provided for in paragraph 2 of Article 11 shall not apply to interest arising in a Contracting State and paid to a permanent establishment of an enterprise of the other Contracting State which is situated in a third State.

It is understood that, in respect of paragraph 3 of Article 11, the competent authorities of the Contracting States may determine by mutual agreement any other governmental institution to which this provision shall apply.

It is understood that, in respect of paragraph 4 of Article 11, interest paid as “interest on the company’s equity”(“juros sobre o capital proprio” in Portuguese) in accordance with Brazilian tax law is also considered interest for the purposes of paragraph 4 of Article 11.

  1. 3.With reference to Article 12, paragraph 3

It is understood that the provisions of paragraph 3 of Article 12 shall apply to payments of any kind received as consideration for the rendering of technical assistance and technical services.

  1. 4.With reference to Article 14

It is understood that the provisions of Article 14 shall also apply if the activities are performed by a company or any other body of persons. [3]

  1. 6.With reference to Article 24

It is understood that the provisions of paragraph 4 of Article 10 are not in conflict with the provisions of paragraph 2 of Article 24.

It is understood that with regard to Article 24, additional administrative requirements other than the booking, filing or payment of taxes, e.g. registration requirements, shall not constitute discrimination as envisaged in paragraphs 1 and 5 of Article 24.

It is understood that the provisions of the law of a Contracting State that do not allow that royalties as defined in paragraph 3 of Article 12, paid by a permanent establishment situated therein to a resident of the other Contracting State that carries on business in the first-mentioned State through such a permanent establishment, be deductible at the moment of the determination of the taxable income of the above referred permanent establishment, are not in conflict with the provisions of paragraph 2 of Article 24.

It is also understood that, with respect to Article 24, the provisions of the Agreement shall not prevent a Contracting State from applying the provisions of its tax law regarding “thin capitalization” or to avoid the deferral of payment of the income tax such as the “controlled foreign corporations/CFCs” legislation or any similar legislation.

  1. 7.With reference to Article 25

It is understood that, irrespective of the participation of the Contracting States in the “General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS)”, the tax issues with regard to the taxes covered by the Agreement arising between the Contracting States shall be governed only by the provisions of the Agreement,

  1. 8.With reference to Article 26

It is understood that, in the case of Brazil, the taxes referred to in paragraph 1 of Article 26 mean federal taxes only.

IN WITNESS whereof the undersigned, being duly authorised thereto, have signed this Protocol.

DONE in duplicate at Foz do Iguafu, this 16th day of December 2010, in the Turkish, Portuguese and English languages, all texts being equally authentic. In the case of any divergence of interpretation between the Turkish and the Portuguese texts, the English text shall prevail.

 



[1]    Each of the Contracting States shall notify to the other, through the diplomatic channels the completion of the procedures required by its domestic law for the bringing into force of this Agreement.

[2]     This Agreement shall enter into force upon the exchange of instruments of ratification and its provisions shall have effect:

a) in the case of Turkey, for taxes with respect to every taxable period beginning on or after the first day of January of the year following that of entry into force of this Agreement;

[3]  With reference to Article 16

It is understood that, in the case of Brazil, the provisions of Article 16 apply also to members of the administrative and fiscal councils established under Chapter XII, Section I, and

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